What backsliding is to religious conversion, recidivism is to penal rehabilitation. Both represent failure, and Zen priests who have a prison ministry can be losers on both counts.
Often we are moved to tears when we give Precepts to a man who receives his certificate with such profound gratitude, with such pride that he has been accepted into Buddhist ranks, who vows with such sincerity to try with all his might to conform his conduct to the requirements of the Path, and who does not show up for another meeting. We never see him again. We might learn that he's espoused another faith, which, frankly, is better than hearing that in the exercise of Buddhist ethics as he understood them he got himself tossed into solitary confinement.
The same inability to predict the future informs our cheery bon voyages when a prisoner is released. Good luck we say to him certain only that he's going to need it.
And so we wonder if the man will stick with Zen or attach himself to another group, or if he will successfully re-enter civilian life or revert to the kind of behavior that got him incarcerated in the first place. We doubt that we have understood him at all - else we should not be so uncertain. We're supposed to be spiritual physicians who diagnose illness and recommend whatever nostrums are necessary to effect cure; but often we don't have a clue.
Not only in prison ministries does this doubt occur. In our civilian sanghas we are frequently surprised by the unwonted actions of a member we thought we thoroughly understood. We miss seeing his face at a meeting and when we inquire about his health or his whereabouts we're told that he has joined another Buddhist group or even another religion - maybe even one of those that regard Buddhism as devil worship. Or else he sends his regrets that he cannot attend meetings on our scheduled evenings because he's taking a course in Continuing Education in order to satisfy a curiosity he has always had about Eighteenth Century French literature. What was going on in his mind when he bowed so reverently to Guan Yin and chanted so joyfully? Was there a tip-off that we missed? A signal that we failed to see?
In his essay, What Is Man, Martin Buber, that indispensable thinker, gives us some direction, a hint of where to look. If we read the work for its academic or literary value, we'll, of course, find it interesting; but without some specific 'cases' to which we can relate the information, we're not likely to find it useful. It is true that Buber mostly speaks of "epochs" of man, periods of complacent belief and periods of penetrating inquiry; but the old alchemical rule nevertheless applies: "As it is in the macrocosm so it is in the microcosm." The general, after all, sums particulars.
It never hurts to see a problem from a different perspective.
The conduct of two men associated with the prison sangha had puzzled me for a long time. It disturbed me that I couldn't even begin to predict how they'd react to civilian life when they were released. They had left in their psychological wake a jumble of dots that I just couldn't connect. Then I happened to remember Buber's essay; and after re-reading it, the prisoners' dots lined up to station themselves into a recognizable pattern.
Buber begins his discussion by reciting Immanuel Kant's four-question formula for the "knowledge of the ultimate aims of human reason."
"What can I know?" the answer to which Kant intends metaphysics and not epistemology to supply.
"What ought I to do?" which ethics will answer.
"What may I hope?" which religion presumes to solve.
"What is man?" The first three questions are essentially contained in this fourth.
In order to answer these questions, a man has to ask them first. He has to wonder, says Buber, about "his special place in the cosmos, his connection with destiny, his relation to the world of things, his understanding of his fellow men, his existence as a being that knows it must die, his attitude in all the ordinary and extraordinary encounters with which the mystery of his life is shot through." It is the man who feels himself alone who is most disposed to engage in such self-reflection. This is the man who does not inhabit, who, Buber notes, "lives in the world as in an open field and at times does not even have four pegs with which to set up a tent."
As we read, we understand that the man who has the security of a protective "philosophical" house appreciates its walls and roof and does not wish to blow them down with gusting questions. If he sees the horizon he is content to fantasize about what lies on the farther side of it. And if his fantasies begin to bore him and thus cease to satisfy, he may investigate that farther place to find new sources of comfortable illusion. He seeks only to gratify his ego's superficial needs as he stays within the safe boundaries of his religious expectations. If he sees the stars he may regard them as sources of entertainment or, perhaps, as serving of some utilitarian purpose. But he does not marvel as the Psalmist marvels, "Lord, when I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained; what is man, that thou art mindful of him?"
As Buddhists we know that we must ask these questions and feel this overwhelming awe; for without having our lives "shot through" with these perforating inquiries, we inflate, our Buddhist ego-image swelling buoyantly into a complacent stratosphere. We become contented in our habituation, domesticated by the routines and appliances of religion - the wafting incense on our altars, the artful wall hangings and statues placed in the corners of our sanctuaries, the gestures, the vestments, the liturgy. We sit upon cushions in our meditation halls as if we are safely inside Plato's Cave watching flickering shadows on the walls. We do not allow ourselves to wonder what dramas are unfolding outside that comfortable theatre, what else we might hope for, what more we ought to do, what knowledge of self lies behind the silhouetted images we study.
The man who does ponder the unknown declares his independence and in his own eccentric way becomes a free agent. He is not satisfied with firelight. He wants to see the Sun.
The two prisoners whose temperament I could not gauge both attended meetings of our medium-security prison sangha, but only one had taken Buddhist Precepts.
The one who officially became a Buddhist was intelligent, well groomed, polite, and faithful in attendance. His conduct in and out of chapel was uniformly good and owing to this exemplary behavior he had been granted parole and would be released as soon as a place opened for him at a halfway house. He very much wanted to join a Buddhist sangha when he was released and, because he had much affection for Vietnamese culture and was somewhat familiar with the language, I suggested that he join a Mahayana Vietnamese temple that had recently opened in our town. This news seemed heaven sent to him, and he asked me to inquire whether they would be averse to having an ex-con in their group. I didn't see why they would be, but I visited them anyway and asked. They did not object and in fact, since they spoke very little English they looked forward to having a bilingual American there in their increasingly American congregation. They gave me a few brochures, a little Vietnamese dictionary, and their meditation schedule - they were open to the public three nights a week. He received this information with great joy. Future possibilities were becoming realities. He was particularly excited to learn that the temple "haven" was located just a few blocks away from a restaurant in which he had been promised a job.
Then, several weeks later, before a meeting someone told me a rumor that he planned to go to Buenos Aires as soon as his probation period was completed. After the meeting I asked him if he did, indeed, plan such a journey. "Yes," he said, "as soon as my parole's up, I'm going to Argentina." I raised my eyebrows. "Why?"
"I know some people who live there."
"No, just some people I met once in Dallas. They send me a Christmas card every year."
I was speechless. Finally I asked, "How are you planning to get there? You'll need a passport and visas--"
"--I can get a passport after I complete parole." He said this as if it were going to be a perfectly simple thing to do. Why would the State Department prevent him from leaving the U.S. and why would another country refuse to put out the welcome mat for a penniless American ex-convict.
"What about money? And how do you plan to get there?"
"My sister has a camper parked in her driveway. It won't fit in the garage. She said it needed a little work, but if I fix it up I'm sure she'll let me borrow it."
Drive? This was bizarre. "Do you know where Argentina is?" The question was rhetorical. I was referring to the immense distance, one quarter of the earth's surface east and one half of the earth's surface south from where we were.
"It's in South America."
"There are a lot of countries between here and Argentina and every one will require a visa and a hefty fee to bring in a recreational vehicle, not to mention insurance. If you have an accident they won't just let you leave, trusting you'll come back for adjudication. They'll want to see evidence of your ability to pay any debts you incur. You'll also need money for gas and oil and food and car repairs and bridge tolls and ferry boats and all the rest." "I'll have money from my job delivering pizzas."
Delivering pizzas? This was not quite the same as working in a restaurant. "Do you have a car?"
"No, my sister has a new Escort I'll use. As soon as I finish at the half-way house, I'm moving in with her."
"Isn't your sister married… with kids?"
"Yes. I'll bunk in the camper until I can afford my own place. I'll be working six nights a week, maybe seven. It shouldn't take me long."
The Vietnamese meditation schedule suddenly became meaningless. To me, his entire life-plan became meaningless.
We walked out of the chapel and I recall standing in the sunlight squinting, stunned. I didn't know what to make of his previously stated intentions and this new fantastic scheme.
In civilian sanghas we sometimes find the same aborted volition, the instantaneous switch from one goal to another. A plan, enthusiastically conceived, dies of neglect, a pitiable orphan. Projects designed to raise money - publishing a newsletter, selling homemade religious articles, construction of accommodations for guest members - are suddenly abandoned. Those who fathered the plan deny paternity and leave the residual responsibilities to others. Their generative abilities are needed elsewhere.
The other man who puzzled me only occasionally sat with our group. He was an American Indian of the Sioux Nation who had been in prison for more than half his life. Sentenced, at eighteen, to twenty years, he was now thirty-eight. He had applied repeatedly for parole but had always been denied - for while he was manageable enough not to warrant being sent to a maximum security prison, he was still considered sufficiently incorrigible to warrant early release into the civilian population.
To call his appearance "sloppy" would be to 'condemn it with faint praise,' to borrow Shakespeare's line. He was a mess. His coarse long hair pushed the 'unacceptably unkempt' envelope that the prison staff itched to open. Several of his front teeth had been knocked out in one or more of his frequent fights; and although the prison dentistry service had given him a partial plate, he preferred not to wear it and risk its destruction. He kept it in a treasure box in his cell. Once, however, he did wear it to show me, and I could see that wild handsomeness that I think Emily Bronte imagined when she created Heathcliff - not as Olivier played him - a passive, effete and pensive gentleman who happened to find himself in unfashionable garments - but a kinetic, electric, brooding man whose thoughts, behind those darting eyes, no outsider could ever apprehend.
At one meeting he gave me an Indian Prisoner's Rights manifesto he had drafted and asked if I would edit it; but it required no correction that I could see. He had acquired an education in prison; and he used it to lobby for official recognition of Native American religious forms of worship. His ceaseless agitations had paid off and down at the end of the prison yard, near one of the watchtowers, was a little sweat lodge he and other Indian men had finally been permitted to build. I was told that he functioned as a kind of shaman in the sweat rituals and that he "could really zone out" during the proceedings. He kept track of the sky and knew when Venus was the Morning Star and when the Evening. Information like this was the criterion by which he gauged all other data. Compared to this, of what significance could he possibly assign the news that half the buttons on his shirt were missing?
I remember asking the warden as he boarded the exit bus, "How do you think he'll do on the outside?" And the warden answered, shaking his head, "He'll get in a fight before he gets off that bus."
We hope for the best about people who are practically strangers to us. It is the nature of our service. In most Zen congregations there is little social interaction between pastor and congregants. We have few bake sales, hymn-sings, pujas, boy scout troops, or other community activities; and Darshan (dokusan) is limited to a few minutes of discussion about meditation practices. Rarely does a teacher encounter students in those social occasions that reveal most about their personalities. Usually, then, we are left to gauge intelligence by the quality of questions asked in forums; to gauge fidelity by attendance; generosity by contributions to the collection box; cleanliness by the appearance of robes; and so on. In short, in the span of two hours per week, we are required to form opinions about a person's character - perhaps even to write letters of recommendation - based upon such brief, structured encounters and flimsy evidence. In a prison setting, it is even more difficult to determine character. There are few after-service chats and, aside from snail-mail, no communication between meetings.
As I re-read Buber and thought about that strange jaunt to Argentina, I saw that what I was missing was that a man who is secure doesn't have to wonder about his place in the universe. He has no anxiety. He is a believer, a creature of habit, a regulated dreamer, an accidental guest - a person who is sanguine about the future that, owing to the largesse of others, always seems rosy. He trusts that everything is going to work out so why worry?
But why is he so secure, so enthusiastic or so casual about unlikely schemes that he presents as realistic goals - schemes which might at first seem reasonable but will later evidence a grandiose or unacceptably presumptuous nature?
How does a man experience the Real? Buber says simply that man has a threefold living relation. "First, his relation to the world and to things; second his relation to men - both to individuals and to the many; and third, his relation to the mystery of being - which is dimly apparent through all this but infinitely transcends it... The Absolute or God."
The person who is afflicted with worldly fantasy is mired in the first 'living relation.' No matter how his behavior seems to conform to society's standards, he sees the material world through acquisitive eyes. He objectifies even himself as a created image, which he assumes that other people will also accept as substantive and genuine. He identifies with desirable objects; and he objectifies even people who become to him mere ways and means, tools to fulfill his needs and desires. We may see him in a prison or in a commercial workplace. He may go to church or to the Zen center every week. He may sit in meditation or bow his head in prayer, but what is he thinking? It is things - his garments, the incense, his breakfast, the weather.. and how these things affect him, or how he can alter or use these things to his advantage. We find his likeness in all forms of literature. He's Williams' Blanche DuBois who affects gentility while plying the skin trade, depending upon "the kindness of strangers" and, ultimately, the coerced hospitality of her sister. The only constant is the need to cling to the self-image of superior bearing. Perhaps he starts out innocently like Thurber's Walter Mitty who seems outwardly to be quite happy performing such ordinary tasks as driving his wife to the beauty parlor; but what is he thinking? Only his body is behind the wheel of his sedan. The rest of him is at the controls of a dive bomber that is now engaged in desperate combat in the skies over Europe. He's not a dutiful husband sitting in a hotel lobby waiting for his wife to be beautified, he's a famous brain surgeon performing an operation that his colleagues lack the skill and courage even to attempt. Thurber let his short story end in one of these imaginative adventures; but if he had written another chapter to the story, Mitty might easily have sought the rewards of fantasy heroism in the real-life adorations of a co-worker or a lunchroom waitress. His wife and children - if he had any - would become strangers, creatures from that "other" world, the one that could not satisfy his fancy.
It is such self-absorption that evicts from consideration those who fulfill laborious obligation in order to give residence to vagrant dreams.
Yet, in a curious way, these fantasies often have a real-world, practical function. They provide leverage and set the stage for contrived conflicts that provide excuse for change. If we look hard enough we can find method in the schemes. Consider the possible manipulations in the proposed trip to Buenos Aires. The ex-prisoner would move in with his sister and it would take about 2.5 hours for her husband to express an intense desire to get him off the property. But there is a problem. No one wants to be known as the kind of person who would turn a brother out, especially one who is "trying to get his life together." Prodigal Sons and Lost Sheep and Good Samaritans will be marched onto the front lawn like so many pink flamingos or plaster gnomes. Biblical precedents will picket the house. It will be the sister who must deal with categorical imperatives.
The request had been merely for the brother temporarily to occupy the camper- a request that seemed too simple to deny. But he will come into the house to eat; to shower, shave and use the toilet, to watch television, to talk on the phone; to do his laundry, and if it is too hot or too cold, he will come in to sleep on the couch. What will it cost her and her husband to eliminate this expensive invader of their privacy while retaining their reputations as decent people? He says he wants to take the camper on a long trip. Well, that will get rid of him. But wait! Their names are on the title - which means they're responsible as owners of the vehicle. What if he doesn't keep up the insurance? He wants to buy the vehicle from them and to pay it off in monthly payments. He offers to commit himself legally to pay; and with a great flourish will sign a promissory note which, as the saying goes, will be like a verbal contract - not worth the paper it's written on.
But will he pay? It is no more likely that he will honor his debt than it is likely that anyone will ever examine the appropriateness of his need or his proposition. He wanted his sister's camper and he found a way to get it. He invoked familial sentiment when he made the request; and that sense of security, of entitlement that is inherent in the request will obviate any sense of responsibility to pay. This is not mere cynicism. This is precisely the course that is followed by a person whose living relation is confined to things.
He is unable to empathize - to consider the negative effect his presence or his debt will have upon his sister - for that would be the second stage of "the threefold living relation." Society will aid him in his self-absorbed goals. Always, the one who is asked to give is reminded more forcefully of the "duty" to be charitable than the one who desires to receive is ever reminded of the obligation to be self-supportive or to lessen his requirements.
In the world of things we find strange participation mystiques, the imbuing of an object with animate qualities with which the person then identifies and associates. Not only does the person believe that the quality of a thing magically adheres to the possessor who becomes unique or important in direct proportion to his evaluation of that symbol or object, but he must also advertise his identified allegiance to that magical element. Especially in prison we find men who have used their own flesh to commemorate an identity with and commitment to such other-worldly power: They are "illustrated men," tattooed not with the usual salute to Mother, service motto, girl, flag or rose; but with serpents that entwine entire limbs; lightning bolts that discharge from an earlobe and strike the chest; birds of prey that seize a nipple in their talons; blood dripping daggers and swords; and, most incomprehensively, a variety of chains and barbed wires that encircle arms and necks. Allegiance to people can alter. Today's benefactor is too often tomorrow's adversary; but the eagle is an emblem of power that will never weaken. The blitzkrieg is forever.
To dismiss this as jailhouse machismo is to overlook those symbols of identity - the designer labels, the expensive cars, the "conspicuous consumption and honorific waste' which characterize leisure class possessions. To whatever extent an owner invests these showy objects with his own identity, he, too, is an illustrated man.
It is not the goal of penal authorities to manufacture saints in prison. They do strive, however, to deliver men and women to the second stage of living relation: to establish a relationship to the world of men. This requires empathy - an ability to understand and accept The Golden Rule, an ability to put oneself in the shoes of another and feel his joy or sorrow, his comfort or pain, and then to act so as to alleviate his sorrow or to appreciate his joy. Empathy allows a man to see the world through the eyes of other men not merely to see his own reflection in their eyes.
We do find in prisons those who keep The Golden Rule - who treat others as they would have others treat them. Men do strive to better themselves, to become aware of what they do not know - and need to know - and to educate themselves accordingly, to form friendships that are not predicated upon survival but upon common interests, to find, as Buber said, their "special place in the cosmos" and "connection with destiny." We even find men who attain the third category of "living relation," who transcend the first two stages and establish "a relation to the mystery of being, to the Absolute or God."
The Sioux Indian did not get into any fights on the bus. He went home to the northern plains to live. After he was out a month he called me to say that he was doing fine. Yeah… yeah… he had met a nice gal and was getting set to move into her trailer. He also got a job delivering building supplies and was saving up to put a down payment on a used pickup truck. But what was really important - what he was calling to tell me - was that he had gone to Wisconsin to see Miracle, the white buffalo heifer. He had actually seen her with his own eyes. Did I know that she was not an albino, an anomaly or some freakish creature - but was a testament to God's inexplicable power to affect change, cleansing change, black to white change - a merciful and beautiful purity! - like the white lotus flower rising out of the muck!?
I said I knew and understood.
A few months later I heard from him for the second and last time. We talked a little about spiritual matters and I could still hear the wonder in his voice. "You're doing well," I said, "I can tell." Then he casually stated every enlightened man's credo. "I'm a king. I've got a good woman, a clean house, a steady job" and then, as a concession to the exigencies of commerce, a little pride of ownership crept into his voice and he added, "and a pickup truck that only needs paint."
Last modified: July 11, 2004
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